Diet for type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Dietary features in diabetes mellitus

"Diabetes mellitus is not a sentence, but a way of life" - endocrinologists keep repeating this phrase. Adherence to a therapeutic regimen is one of the basic points in the treatment of diabetes mellitus, which allows the patientMakes it possible to live a full life.

Diabetes is a major component of dietary treatment. In this disease, there is a deficiency of insulin - a special hormone of the pancreas that regulates carbohydrate metabolism. The main symptom of diabetes mellitus is an increase in blood sugar, but a violation of carbohydrate metabolism. Not isolated remains, but leads to imbalances in both protein and fat metabolism.

The diabetic diet is not just about limiting carbohydrates. The diet of the patient also includes products that contribute to normalizing the functioning of other organs and systems, which, as a rule, are associated with this endocrineDiseases are affected. So, for example, with concomitant obesity, which is often the case, the menu includes as many vegetables as possible that contain a small amount of calories, but give a feeling of fullness: cucumbers, tomatoes, spinach. , Peas, cabbage, lettuce. Given that in many cases, diabetes also affects the liver, dietary extracts (meat and fish broth) are limited, but they necessarily include cheese, soy, and oatmeal. , Which have beneficial effects on liver function. And damage to the cardiovascular system determines the restriction of salt in the diet for patients with diabetes.

The current two types of diabetes mellitus require a different dietary approach. In type 1 diabetes, diet is not so important - the emphasis in treatment is on the administration of insulin, which makes the diet of such patients less restrictive. But in type 2 diabetes mellitus, diet is of paramount importance - in the early stage of the disease, in many cases it is possible to control blood sugar levels only by following the recommendations of a medical regimen without prescribing antihyperglycemic drugs.

However, there are general principles in the diet for any type of diabetes, following which it is possible to stabilize carbohydrate metabolism to one degree or another.

diabetes diet: basic principles

  • Food is frequent, regular, at the same time - at least 4 times a day.
  • Uniform distribution of calorie content and nutritional value of diet by staple food.
  • variety including a wide range of recommended products for diabetics.
  • intake of xylitol or sorbitol to sweeten food.
  • Calorie control of daily diet using special tables.
  • Liquid limit up to 1200 ml including first courses.
  • Incorporation of foods rich in vitamins into food: rose broth, yeast, etc.
  • Regular monitoring of blood sugar content with improvement in diet, based on results obtained.

type 2 diabetes diet

In modern medicine all therapeutic diets are usually specified by numbers for ease of use. In the case of diabetes, the classic diet has a number 9 - otherwise they say "table number 9".

What is diet number 9 for diabetes?

Recommended food:

  1. Bread (with emphasis on rye pastry) 200-300 grams;
  2. vegetable broth soup;
  3. Meat and poultry boiled or boiled;
  4. low-fat zucchini or steamed fish;
  5. Vegetables: white cabbage or cauliflower, lettuce, rutabagas, cucumbers, radishes, beets, carrots, potatoes;
  6. eggs - 2 pieces per day;
  7. Unripe fruits and berries: Antonov apples, oranges, lemons, lingonberries, cranberries, red current;
  8. kefir or yogurt - 200-400 ml per day;
  9. cheese up to 200 mg per day;
  10. Mild sauces including dairy sauce;
  11. Snacks: vinaigrette, lettuce, jelly fish;
  12. Drinks: Tomato juice, tea with milk, aromatic juice, manure without sugar;
  13. Butter and vegetable oil - 40 grams per day.

Limited Use:

  1. Cereals, legumes and pasta are taken in limited quantities, while reducing bread consumption;
  2. Soups based on weak fish or meat broth - no more than 2 times a week;
  3. Sugar and diabetes sweets - as recommended by a doctor;
  4. milk - as recommended by a doctor;
  5. cheese, cream, sour cream - limited;
  6. Coffee.

Forbidden:

  1. chocolate, sweets, cakes, pastries, honey, jam and the like;
  2. pork and lamb fat;
  3. Spicy, salty and smoked dishes:
  4. Sweet fruits: bananas, raisins, grapes;
  5. Alcohol in any form.

Table 9 is a diet for diabetic patients during the period of the stabilization of the disease. If the patient's condition worsens for some reason, as a rule, the diet becomes more limited. In any case. In, only a doctor can make definitive dietary recommendations for type 2 diabetes.

type 1 diabetes diet

In type 1 diabetes, diet is determined by the administration of insulin, so the same recommendations are usually followed in patients with type 2 diabetes who require insulin injections.

In terms of composition, such a menu is not very different from the diet for type 2 diabetes, but sugar is completely excluded. Despite this prohibition, patients receiving insulin are strongly advised thatAlways keep a piece of sugar or candy with them, which may be necessary in case of danger of hypoglycemic state - a condition of low blood sugar levels, with which a serious condition is possible - coma.

Modern glucometer and carbohydrate table enables such patients to lead more nutritious lifestyles. Allows to eat foods or eat more carbohydrates. However, for this, the patient needs to measure blood sugar before each meal and, depending on the upcoming menu, expressed in XE, reduce oneself-Injects the required amount of inducible insulin. A special table is used to calculate grain units.

All of the above does not mean that a patient with type 1 diabetes can eat everything and in any amount: one meal should not exceed 7-8 XE. For overweight patients, these restrictions andAre also stringent.

A characteristic of the type 1 diabetes diet is the high protein content. This requirement is particularly important for patients with infectious complications and manifestations of trophic disorders of the extremities.

A detailed diet, alternate meals, and hourly insulin administration should be composed only by the attending physician.

diabetes weight loss diet

Patients with diabetes mellitus, especially II, are often overweight. Therefore, the question of limiting the calorie content of the diet may be particularly important for such patients. However, in this case "fast"None of the mono diets should be used. Such prohibition is explained by a high risk of developing a severe hypoglycemic state (significant reduction in blood sugar) in the case of a balanced diet violation, and type 1It is almost beneficial in patients with diabetes and patients with moderate type 2 diabetes.

If you are overweight, a diet to lose weight in diabetes implies the improvement of the normal therapeutic diet number 9, with a low content of refined carbohydrates (sugar) and some restrictions on fat. However, such decisionsShould not be done without the advice of a doctor: Only together with a doctor will the patient be able to prepare a safe diet with low calorie content.